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oil and gas engineering is a field of engineering concerned with the activities related to the production of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gas. Exploration and Production are deemed to fall within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry. Exploration, by earth scientists, and oil and gas engineering are the oil and gas industry's two main subsurface disciplines, which focus on maximizing economic recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs. oil and gas geology and geophysics focus on provision of a static description of the hydrocarbon reservoir rock, while oil and gas engineering focuses on estimation of the recoverable volume of this resource using a detailed understanding of the physical behavior of oil, water and gas within porous rock at very high pressure. The combined efforts of geologists and oil and gas engineers throughout the life of a hydrocarbon accumulation determine the way in which a reservoir is developed and depleted, and usually they have the highest impact on field economics. oil and gas engineering requires a good knowledge of many other related disciplines, such as geophysics, oil and gas geology, formation evaluation (well logging), drilling, economics, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering, well engineering, artificial lift systems, completions and oil and gas facilities engineering. Recruitment to the industry has historically been from the disciplines of physics, chemical engineering and mining engineering. Subsequent development training has usually been done within oil companies. It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds. The name oil and gas covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and oil and gas products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, oil and gas is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. oil and gas has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural oil and gas springs are rare). Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, and reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of the porosity and permeability of geologic reservoir structures) have been completed. It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. oil and gas is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day.